DEFINITIONS

Acidified milk – milk product with a pH between 3.8 and 5.5. Relates to yoghurts, drinkable yoghurts, prepared yoghurts, heat-treated fermented milk and other products; products based on or containing bifidus; acidified milk with/without additives with the addition of sugar and/or sweeteners.

Butter and other yellow fat products (as equivalent of 82% butter) – butter, natural butter (processed directly and only from pasteurized cream), recombined butter (produced from butteroil, dry non-fat milk-material and water), whey butter (produced from whey cream or mix of whey cream and cream), rendered butter and butteroil and other milk fat products shown as butter equivalent (incl. võideks, võidel).

Buttermilk – a residual product (also acid or acidified) of the processing of milk or cream into butter (by continuous churning and separation of solid fat). Buttermilk with additives is included in drinks with a milk base.

Butteroil – a product obtained from milk, cream or butter by processes which eliminate the water and the non-fat dry extract; with a content of milk fat of at least 99.3% by weight and a water content of up to 0.5% by weight.

Cheese – a fresh or matured (semi-)solid product obtained by coagulating milk, skimmed milk, partly skimmed milk, cream, whey cream or buttermilk, alone or in combination, by the action of rennet or other suitable coagulating agents, and by partly draining the whey resulting from such coagulation (incl. cheese-like product with vegetable fat). Includes cheese obtained from cow milk, incl fresh cheese.

Cream – processed cream available for delivery outside dairies (for human consumption, as raw material, for manufacturers of chocolate, ice cream, etc.). Also includes cream heat treated, acidified, in cartons or tins.

Cream milk powder – milk powder with a milk fat content of at least 42% by weight of the product.

Curd (fresh cheese) – product obtained from sour milk from which most of the serum has been removed by draining or pressing and which may contain up to 30% by weight of sugar and added fruits. Includes curd (except in the form of powder), home cheese, raw cheese, cheese curd, mozzarella, fresh whey cheese (obtained by concentrating whey and adding milk or milk fat).

Drinking milk – raw milk, whole milk, semi-skimmed and skimmed milk containing no additives, also milk with vitamin additives. Milk directly intended for consumption, normally in containers of two litres or less.

Heat treatment – pasteurizing, sterilizing or uperizing.

Low fat milk powder – milk powder with a milk fat content of more than 1.5% and less than 26% by weight of the product.

Manufacture of dairy products – milk products from fresh cow milk or skimmed milk for delivery outside dairies. To avoid double counting, milk products used within the Estonian dairies for the manufacture of other milk products are not taken into account.

Natural butter – product produced from pasteurized cream with a milk fat content of at least 80% but less than 90%, a water content of up to 16% and a dry non-fat milk-material content of up to 2%.

Pasteurized milk – milk obtained by means of a treatment involving a high temperature for a short time (71.7°C for at least 15 seconds or any equivalent combination) or pasteurization process using different time and temperature combinations to obtain an equivalent effect.

Reduced-fat butter – butter with a milk-fat content of less than 80% by weight (excl. other fats, võideks and võidel).

Rendered butter – butter with a milk fat content exceeding 85% by weight of the product. The term covers, in addition to rendered butter as such, a number of other similar dehydrated butters which are known generically under various names, such as 'dehydrated butter', 'anhydrous butter', 'butteroil', 'butyric fat' (milk fat) and 'concentrated butter'.

Recombined butter – a product produced from butteroil, dry non-fat milk-material and water with a milk fat content of at least 80% but less than 90%, a water content of up to 16% and a dry non-fat milk-material content of up to 2%.

Semi-skimmed milk – milk which has been subject to heat treatment and whose fat content is over 0.5% and less than 3.5%.

Skimmed milk – milk which has been subject to heat treatment and whose fat content is up to 0.5%.

Skimmed-milk powder – milk powder with a milk fat content of up to 1.5% by weight of the product.

Sterilized milk – milk which has been heated and sterilized in hermetically sealed wrappings or containers, the seal of which must remain intact. Milk must be of such preservability that no deterioration can be observed after it has spent 15 days in a closed container at the temperature of +30°C.

Uperized milk – milk produced by applying a continuous flow of heat using a high temperature for a short time (at least 135°C for not less than 1 second).

Whey – by-product obtained during the manufacture of cheese or casein. In the liquid state, whey contains natural constituents (on average 4.8% of lactose, 0.8% of protein and 0.2% of fats by weight of the product) which remain when casein and most fat have been removed from milk.

Whey butter – a product produced from whey cream or mix of whey cream and cream; with a milk fat content of at least 80% but less than 90%, a water content of up to 16% and a dry non-fat milk-material content of up to 2%.

Whole milk – milk which has been subject to heat treatment and whose fat content is naturally at least 3.5%.

METHODOLOGY

For producing milk statistics the following data are used: data about milk purchase from Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB), data of foreign trade and statistical surveys.

Quaterly data about milk purchase and main milk products are collected by statistical survey ”Milk purchase and production of milk products“. Detailed data about milk products are collected by annual statistical survey „Milk products“. Data providers are first buyers of milk from Estonian agricultural producers and milk processing establishments approved by the Veterinary and Food Board.

Milk purchased from Estonian agricultural producers is taken into account. The value of purchased milk is expressed in purchase price, excl. value-added tax and transportation costs.

Milk products include products produced from fresh cow milk and skimmed milk for delivery outside dairies. To avoid double counting, milk products used in Estonian dairies for the manufacture of other milk products are not taken into account. The volume of milk and skimmed milk used as raw material in the production of milk products is estimated based on the milk fat content in the product.

CONTACT PERSON

Eve Valdvee
Enterprise and Agricultural Statistics Department
Tel +372 625 9397
eve.valdvee@stat.ee

Updated: 17.10.2019