Age – the age of the person concerned in full years at the time of the event, i.e. the age at last birthday.
Age-specific first marriage rate – the annual number of first marriages per 1,000 men or women of specific age. Measures the intensity of first marriages in age groups.
Child born from legal marriage – a child whose father’s data on birth record are based on the marriage record.
Crude birth rate – annual number of live-born persons per 1,000 of mean annual population.
Crude divorce rate – the number of registered divorces per 1,000 of mean annual population.
Crude marriage rate – the number of registered marriages per 1,000 of mean annual population.
Crude death rate – annual number of deaths per 1,000 of mean annual population.
Crude rate of natural increase – annual natural increase per 1,000 of mean annual population. It has been calculated as the difference between crude rates of birth and death.
Demographic labour pressure index – the share of the persons (aged 5–14) who will enter the labour market and of the persons (aged 55–64) who will exit the labour market during the next ten years because of ageing. If the index is bigger than one, the number of persons entering the labour market is larger than the number of persons potentially leaving it because of ageing.
Dependency ratio – the number of population aged 0–14 and over 65 (inactive population) per 100 persons of population aged 15–64 (active population).
Duration of marriage in years – the interval of time between the day, month and year of marriage to date it was divorced, expressed in full years.
Ethnic nationality – the data are based on self-determination. The ethnic nationality of the mother is taken as a basis for determining the ethnic nationality of the child.
First marriage – first marriage of a person.
Gross reproduction rate – the average number of daughters born to a woman during her lifetime if she passed through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year.
Infant death – the death of an up to one-year-old live-born child.
Infant mortality rate – infant (under one-year-old children) deaths per 1,000 live births in the same year.
Life expectancy – the average remaining lifetime in years for persons who attain a given age if mortality remains unchanged. At the age of 0 – the life expectancy at birth (see also the definition of “life table”).
Life table – a numerical model (table of numerical values of age-dependent functions) which measures through interrelated indicators the mortality level in a certain period. The radix (birth generation) under review has been given the value 100,000 (), and the function expresses the number of survivors in that set reaching the exact age on the assumption that the probability of an x-year-old person to die before reaching age is . These figures are used also for calculating the life expectancy.
Live birth – delivery of a live-born child, i.e. a child showing evidence of life irrespective of the duration of pregnancy.
Mean annual population – half the sum number of the population at the beginning and at the end of the year.
Natural increase – difference between the number of births and deaths in a certain year. The positive natural increase shows the excess of live births over deaths, the negative one shows the excess of deaths over live births.
Number of survivors – see the definition of ”life table”.
Place of residence – the area or settlement in which the person resides according to his/her statement or according to the Population Register (depending on the methodology of the survey).
Probability of dying – probability of a person of a certain age to die before reaching the following year of age.
Total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of children that would be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she passed through all her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year. The TFR is calculated based on the birth rates by age of mother.
Total first marriage rate – the probability of first marriage for a person if he/she passed through ages 15–49 conforming to the age-specific first marriage rates of a given year. It is calculated on the basis of the age-specific first marriage rates observed in a given year. The indicator can exceed the figure ‘1’ in the years of rapid increase in the number of marriages, although it is excluded that a person can contract more than one first marriage.
Vital events: births, deaths, marriages and divorces
Statistics on births, deaths, marriages and divorces covers vital events of Estonian residents registered at the vital statistics offices in Estonia, as well as the vital events of Estonian citizens registered in the foreign representations of Estonia. Events registered in Estonia or in a foreign representation of Estonia are excluded from statistics, if the place of residence of the person(s) is permanently abroad.
Until 1993 the birth statistics were based on the birth records of all births registered at the vital statistics offices of counties and local governments. Starting from the beginning of 1994, the data are derived from statistical accounting records of birth registration, which are filled in together with compiling the birth certificate. The basis for yearly processing of the birth data is the birth date of the child. Birth must be registered within one month after childbirth. Births about which the vital statistcs office was notified in February of the next year or later, were by way of an exception accounted in the statistical processing under the data of the registration year.
If the child has been registered in Estonia, then the child’s place of residence is always the same as the mother’s place of residence. If the mother’s place of residence is outside of Estonia or is unknown, but the father’s place of residence is in Estonia and is known, then the child’s place of residence will be the father’s place of residence. If the place of residence of both parents is unknown, then the child’s place of residence is the place of the registration of the birth. Since 1994 the statistical birth forms are also completed by the foreign representations of Estonia. Of live births that are registered abroad, only the births in the case of which the mother’s place of residence is in Estonia are included in the total number of Estonian births.
The birth tables include data only on live births.
Until 1993 statistics on deaths were based on death records of all deaths registered at the vital statistics offices of local governments, and starting from 1994 – on statistical accounting forms of registering deaths which from 1996 were renamed medical death certificates. Medical death certificates also serve as basis for preparing death records. The processing of the data on deaths is based on the date of the death. Deaths, which are registered later than in January of the year following the year of death, will be added to the data of the registration year in the course of statistical processing. The deaths of Estonian citizens whose place of residence is abroad and whose death is registered abroad are excluded. Also deaths of foreign citizens who died in Estonia but whose place of residence is outside Estonia, are excluded. In case the place of residence of a dead person is unknown, the place where the death was registered is used as the last place of residence of the person concerned.
From 2008 the data of the Population Register and Estonian Causes of Death Registry are used.
Marriages and divorces
Until the end of 1993, statistics on marriages and divorces were based on the corresponding records drawn up at the vital statistics offices. From the beginning of 1994, marriage and divorce statistics are based on statistical forms filled out simultaneously with the records at the Estonian vital statistics offices. In years 1994–2003, statistical forms were filled out also in the foreign representations of Estonia. Howewer, since 2004, marriages of Estonian citizens are concluded by Estonian representations abroad only in exceptional cases; divorces are not registered at foreign representations any more. From the beginning of 1995, by the new Family Act, judicial divorces are registered and the corresponding statistical forms are filled out in courts. Since 1 December 2001, ministers of religion also have the right to conclude marriages and issue marriage certificates.
At the vital statistics offices of county governments and at the Tallinn Vital Statistics Office, the statistical forms of marriages and divorces are filled out electronically. Ministers of religion deliver the statistical forms of marriages concluded by them to the vital statistics offices of county governments or to the Tallinn Vital Statistics Office. Foreign representations of Estonia deliver the statistical forms drawn up by them during the year to the Population Facts Department of the Estonian Ministry of the Interior in February of the next year at the latest. From the beginning of 1995, courts also deliver the statistical forms on judicial divorces to Statistics Estonia. A registered marriage or divorce is excluded from statistics, if the place of residence of both persons is permanently abroad.
Formulas used in calculations
Age-specific fertility rate for women
— number of live-born children for women at age [x; x+a);
— mean annual number of women at age [x; x+a).
Age-specific first marriage rate by sex (in 5-year age groups)
— number of first marriages at age by sex,
— average number of women/men at age
Calculated for age groups 15–19, 20–24, …, 45–49.
Demographic labour pressure index
Life expectancy (the average number of years one is expected to live)
Until 1989 the calculation of life tables differed from the methods used today (Reference Book of Population Statistics, 2/95). Since 1989 the life expectancy is calculated as follows:
— the number of survivors in birth generation after reaching the age x;
— the upper limit of the length of life.
The primary values of death probability have been calculated by using the formula:
— the number of persons who died at age x in the year under observation
— mean annual population at age x,
— the number of persons who died at age x whose last birthday was in the year under observation (x = 1, 2, . . ., w).
In order to smooth the death probabilities, the model of Heligman-Pollard was mixed with the method of moving average.
On the basis of smoothed indicators :
and the number of person-years have been calculated as follows:
where x = 2, 3, 4 and 5, and in the case of other values of x:
where the number of persons who died at age x is .
The value is usually called the expectation of life at birth, or life expectancy.
Mean age at first marriage (by sex)
— age-specific first marriage rate in 5-year age groups by sex (ages included: 15–49).
For years 1970–1977, instead of and , the value of has been used.
Mean age of woman at childbirth (5-year age groups)
— age-specific fertility rate
Mean age of women at birth of the first child (5-year age groups)
— age-specific fertility rate of first births
Total fertility rate
a — number of years in age-group, usually one or five years
— age-specific fertility rate for women
Total first marriage rate (by sex) — TFMR
— age-specific first marriage rate in 5-year age group by sex (ages included: 15–49).
Classification of Estonian administrative units and settlements (EHAK)
Until 1999, the administrative division, on which the population location and population events by territorial distribution was based, was almost the same as during the 1989 Census. The distribution of the population and vital events by urban and rural areas observed the administrative division. Urban areas included all cities and towns and rural areas included rural municipalities. This method ensured comparability of data with previous years.
Since 1996 some towns and cities have been joined with neighbouring rural municipalities. Therefore, it is not possible to present the time-series of the data concerning population location and population events by territorial distribution by the current administrative division. Instead of the distribution of population and population events by urban and rural areas, the distribution into urban and rural settlements is therefore presented. Urban settlements include cities, cities without municipal status and towns; rural settlements include small towns and villages.
EHAK is available on the web site of Statistics Estonia under the heading List of Classifications: www.stat.ee/metadata
Statistical Classification of Regional Units of Estonia (EPS)
based on Nomenclature of Territorial Units of Statistics (NUTS)
According to the NUTS level 3, Estonia is divided as follows:
|EE001||Northern Estonia||Harju County|
|EE004||Western Estonia||Hiiu, Lääne, Pärnu and Saare Counties|
|EE006||Central Estonia||Järva, Lääne-Viru and Rapla Counties|
|EE007||Northeastern Estonia||Ida-Viru County|
|EE008||Southern Estonia||Jõgeva, Põlva, Tartu, Valga, Viljandi and Võru Counties|
Rahvastik. Population. Yearbook
Eesti statistika aastaraamat. Statistical Yearbook of Estonia
Eesti Statistika Kvartalikiri. Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics Estonia
Linnad ja vallad arvudes. Cities and Rural Municipalities in Figures
Maakonnad arvudes. Counties in Figures
Eesti piirkondlik statistika. Regional Statistics of Estonia
Population figure and composition by age and sex
Population and Social Statistics Department
Tel +372 625 8481
Deaths, marriages and divorces
Population and Social Statistics Department
Tel +372 625 9112
Births and abortions
Population and Social Statistics Department
Tel +372 625 9112